Thursday, October 1, 2015

Holidays and Observances for October 1 2015

CD Player Day


With the rise of digital downloads, MP3s and integrated media devices in the house and on the move, the humble CD player may become a thing of the past. Get a bit lo-tech, and celebrate CD Player Day by enjoying music from a dedicated CD player, a portable hand-held player, or even a boombox or ghetto-blaster!

October 1, 1982 Sony starts selling the first CD players to the public. Change is in the air.

Once upon a time cassettes were the preferred method of storing music. These mighty rectangles of plastic and magnetic tape allowed for easy recording, flaunted ample capacities, and were effortlessly portable. (If you weren’t worried about portability, there was still the reliable LP vinyl phonograph disc.)

And yet cassettes sucked.

Tapes easily wore out after repeated use, they were prone to kraken-like tangles, and audio fidelity was about as sharp as a bowling ball. By the mid ’70s electronics behemoth Sony was eager to replace cassettes with a high-quality digital format.

The firm demoed an optical digital-audio disc in 1978 that could hold 2½ hours of music with 16-bit linear resolution and cross-interleaved error-correction code. Sony used this optical disc as a template, and four years later released the very first commercial compact disc player.

The CDP-101 did not come cheap nor did it come svelte. Early adopters had to part ways with the equivalent of $2,200 in today’s ducats for a single 14 x 5 x 12½-inch unit. Worse yet, the CD player’s media library was pathetic. At launch a mere 113 albums were available for purchase.

Compact discs themselves were not exactly inexpensive either. A single album sold for around $33 to $45 in today’s currency.

But that didn’t stop folks from buying in. Classical music snobs and serious audiophiles went gaga for the stratospheric increase in sonic quality that came with the compact disc.

Mozart and Beethoven were some of the first artists on CD, and the ability to fit Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony on a single disc at least partly determined the CD’s capacity. Some classical fans complained of tinniness or excessive crispness in the sound mix, but that eventually faded away as audio engineers learned how to optimize quality in the new medium.

Sony sold 20,000 CDP-101s by the end of 1982. Less than a year later digital music exploded like a Michael Bay film. CBS records issued 16 new titles on CD in March of 1983.

In 1985, the Dire Straits album, Brothers in Arms would be the first CD to sell over a million copies. More than 400 million CDs were produced in 1988 by some 50 factories scattered around the world.

Compact discs were thought of as the heir apparent to both cassettes and vinyl. It turns out the format would also pave a binary-coded road for almost all forms of digital media we use today. Everything from CD-ROMs to Blu-rays to USB sticks to MP3s — which in their own turn essentially killed the CD format — can all trace their lineage back to the success of the CDP-101.

Fire Pup Day


Fire Pup Day is celebrated each year on October 1 and is a day designated to recognize our canine firefighters, the four-footed members of the fire department. In the United States, dalmatians are commonly known as firehouse dogs.

The tradition of Dalmatians in firehouses dates back more than a century. Nowadays they mainly serve as mascots, but before fire trucks had engines, Dalmatians played a vital role every time firefighters raced to a blaze.

It all dates back to when people used horse-drawn carriages. But, at first, the dogs didn't have anything to do with fire fighters. People realized that Dalmatians would run alongside horses, keeping pace even when sprinting long distances. The dogs would even defend the horses from other dogs or animals that could spook or attack the horses during the ride.

Dalmatians often ran in pairs, with one on either side of the coach, or close behind the horses. English aristocrats during the early 1700s were among the first known to use Dalmatians to accompany their carriages, according to Trevor J. Orsinger's book, "The Firefighter's Best Friend: Lives and Legends of Chicago Firehouse Dogs." The dogs became a status symbol of sorts; the more Dalmatians you had running beside your coach represented your social standing.

The use of Dalmatians carried over to the horse-drawn wagons that firefighters rode to the scene of a fire.

When a fire alarm sounded, the Dalmatians would run out of the firehouse, barking to let bystanders know that they should get out of the way because the firefighters' wagon would soon come roaring by. Once the wagon was out on the street, the Dalmatians would run beside it.

The brave, loyal dogs also served an important purpose once the wagon approached a fire. Horses are afraid of fire, and the Dalmatians' presence could distract and comfort the horses as they pulled the wagon closer to a blaze. The Dalmatians also stood guard near the wagon to ensure that no one stole the firefighter's belongings, equipment or horses.

You would think that with the invention of the automobile, Dalmatians would no longer be needed by firemen. Some firehouses, however, have kept the dogs around as friendly companions in order to preserve the tradition. Dalmatians continue to guard firefighters' possessions, but instead of running alongside fire trucks, they ride inside of them. The dogs are also known to catch and kill rats that have taken up residence in firehouses.

One firehouse that continues to have a Dalmatian is Fire Department New York City's Ladder 20. Their 10-year-old dog is named Twenty, and can sometimes be spotted sticking her head out of the window as the department's fire truck races through the streets of Manhattan.

The dalmatian today serves as a firehouse mascot and is sometimes used to educate the public in fire safety. Dalmatians are often chosen as a pet by firefighters in honor of their heroism in the past.

Homemade Cookie Day


Grab the milk - October 1 is Homemade Cookie Day!

There’s something seriously satisfying about dunking a homemade cookie into a tall glass of cold milk. Knowing that the plate before you is piled high with mini labors of love is up there on the "things to make you happy" list.

Cookies were first made after sugar became available as a baking ingredient about 1400 years ago. They were an enhancement to grain and water based breads made as early as 10,000 years ago. Persian bakers added sugar to bread recipes to create sweet cakes that baked in a clay oven fueled by dry wood fires. Because it was hard to estimate baking temperatures in that kind of oven, small amounts of cake batter, placed inside at intervals, determined the best time to start cooking the full-sized cakes. Eventually, those small "test" cakes became a delicacy in their own right, and today we know them as cookies, the Dutch word for "little cake."

The earliest cookie recipes made use of sweet cake ingredients such as flour, sugar, butter, spice and nuts. Baked twice to make a crisp biscotti cookie; they kept well for a long time. Dried fruit embellishments such as raisins and dates made these treats quite nourishing, and they soon ended up as a staple for sailors, nomadic traders, and soldiers. Today, these same ingredients, used in a centuries-old biscotti recipe, can inspire families and motivate kids to meet goals through success-oriented activities such as cookie dough fundraising projects. Otis Spunkmeyer Butter Sugar Cookie dough makes a fast and easy starter for hand-shaped and cutter-shaped cookies that make a great family project.

While you wait for your history-making cookies to bake, you can entertain the kids by sharing stories about different types of cookies from around the world, exploring how cookies have changed in each place over the centuries. After cakes became widespread in Persia they caught the eye of soldiers in the armies of Alexander the Great, and were soon brought back with them to Greece. From there, the idea of making small cakes into cookies spread to India, Asia, Africa and the rest of Europe. By the end of the 16th century, individual "fine cake" cookie recipes began making their way into the bread section of nationally representative cookbooks. Early explorers from Spain and France were instrumental to introducing cookies to South America, and pioneers from the Netherlands, Scotland and England made sure that cookie recipes became a part of North American colonial history.

When more exotic cookie ingredients, such as flaked coconut and chocolate, became available through international trade, the range of cookie types quickly expanded. In addition, with new recipes came novel ways for shaping cookies into fanciful and remarkable designs. One unique style we are all familiar with is the fortune cookie. Contrary to popular belief, this cookie actually originated in Japan, and it is often made by combining those same ancient ingredients in a slightly different way. For your next culinary adventure with the kids, you may want to visit the makefortunecookies.com site for simple instructions and printable fortunes. Another site that can take you through a world of food history ishttp://www.foodtimeline.org/index.html, with more specific resource links and detailed information in their section about cookies at http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodcookies.html.

Familiarize your kids with the history of cookie stamps, molds and cutters used to decorate cookies from the time they were first invented. Carved into ceramics and wood, or fashioned from metal, they often carried family, clan or country emblems handed down through generations. Many examples still exist as collectible antiques, and illustrated designs are searchable online. You can reproduce those patterns, or invent your own, by crafting clay or rubber stamps to press on your cookie dough. Simple, iconic shapes are popular, such as a thistle outline to represent Scotland, or a family name carved into an heirloom cookie press.

Cookies are so beloved in modern history that most home cooks include them in their repertoire. More than half of the cookies baked at home are chocolate chip cookies. The chocolate chip cookie was invented in 1930 at the Toll House Inn by Ruth Graves Wakefield, resulted when she chopped a semi-sweet chocolate bar into small bits and added it to a traditional colonial butter drop cookie recipe. As a result, the chocolate chip cookie became regionally famous and later renowned throughout the country. In 1997, Massachusetts designated it as the state cookie.

Cookies are not particularly hard to make, but perfecting the technique can take some practice. Here are some useful tips:
  • Take the time to make sure your ingredients are room temperature. Butter and eggs can sit on the kitchen counter overnight without catastrophe.
  • To ensure even sizing, use a small ice cream scoop to portion out your cookies. This will help them all bake evenly.
  • Speaking of cooking evenly, most ovens have one spot or side that cooks faster than the other. If this is the case for you, rotate your cookies half way through baking.
  • Don’t forget to use a non-stick spray or wax paper to prevent your morsels from sticking. There’s nothing worse than cookies stuck to the pan.
  • Be patient! Let the cookies cool after baking. Use a spatula to move them from the baking sheet to a wire rack.
  • For chewy cookies, pull them out a minute or two shy of the recommended baking time. The patience rule still applies though.
  • While it may be delicious, don’t eat too much of the raw cookie dough. It’ll leave you with a stomach ache and is potentially hazardous to your health.
International Day of Older Persons


The United Nations' (UN) International Day of Older Persons is celebrated annually on October 1 to recognize the contributions of older persons and to examine issues that affect their lives.

International Day of Older Persons is a special day for older persons or senior citizens all over the world. In many countries, politicians make speeches, particularly those responsible for government departments that focus on senior citizens, at this time of the year. Some radios, televisions or newspapers publish interviews with senior citizens on various issues such as achievements they made to create a better society.

Other activities surrounding this day include: displays of promotional material on the International Day of Older Persons in schools, tertiary institutions, office buildings and public notice boards;  media announcements on the day and activities that promote older persons; and inter-generational cooperation on voluntary activities focused on the environment, health, education or community services.

The World Health Organization (WHO), which is the UN’s directing and coordinating authority for health related issues, and other groups have been actively involved in promoting public awareness and attention on the International Day of Older Persons. Discussions are centered on topics such as: ageing populations and the provision of adequate healthcare for aged persons; volunteer work; social care; and ways to be more inclusive of older persons in the workforce.

On December 14, 1990, the UN General Assembly made October 1 as the International Day of Older Persons, following up on initiatives such as the Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing, which was adopted by the 1982 World Assembly on Ageing and endorsed later that year by the assembly. The International Day of Older Persons was observed for the first time throughout the world on October 1, 1991.

In 1991 the UN General Assembly adopted the United Nations Principles for Older Persons. In 2002 the second World Assembly on Ageing adopted the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing to respond to the opportunities and challenges of population ageing in the 21st century and to promote the development of a society for all ages.

The WHO logo is often seen on promotional material for the International Day of Older Persons.  The logo is often featured in the color white on a mid-blue background. It shows a stereographic projection of the earth centered on the North Pole under a serpent coiled around a staff. Two ears of wheat “cradle” the image. The projection symbolizes the global nature of the organization, while the serpent and staff are known to symbolize medical help and knowledge. Images of older people from different cultures and backgrounds around the world have been also used in UN promotional tools for the International Day of Older Persons.

International Music Day


International Music Day or World Music Day is a concept too good to believe and the best part is that it actually exists. Yes, International Music day or the IMD was initiated on the 1st of October in 1975 by Lord Yehudi Menuhin. It was first organized by the International Music Council on 1st of October, 1975, in accordance with the resolution taken at the 15th General Assembly in Lausanne in 1973.

The International Music Council (IMC) or the guardian of the IMD was founded by UNESCO in 1949. The IMC is the world's largest network of organizations, institutions and individuals functioning in the field of music. The International Music Council encourages and fosters musical diversity, access to culture for everyone and unites organizations in some 150 countries worldwide in building peace and understanding among people cutting across class, culture and heritage.

The IMC in its bid to establish a global harmony through the music, celebrates the International Music Day and with special focus on organizing musical events, radio and television programs and press recordings. Amidst all this the onus is also on building up an environment more conducive and hospitable to music-on the practice, consumption and the general aura of music. So, an important zone of interest is also struggle against the pollution of the sound environment and quite interestingly the IMC proposes that each country should maintain a few moments of silence on the International Music Day, and use that silence to listen to music played out in main city squares.

On International Music Day, the desired aim is to create a global atmosphere of music, a platform for people to come together with their diversities and mingle to make one unified whole. Like any other artistic or cultural celebrations the day is generally to celebrate art and to successfully realize these activities, it is essential to mobilize all means at our disposal in the 21st century-the radio and television, concert societies, opera companies, amateur societies; a great many different types of localities should all be used to their best advantage.

In various countries the day is the perfect opportunity to organize grand concerts by roping in the greatest musical artistes of our. Also common are random musical events and talent shows to seek out the new and emerging musical artistes- to build up a treasury of the old and new in the world of music. Music after all is the greatest unifier in humanity and all significant social events have musical pieces dedicated to it. No event is better recognized or defined than by music which defines and completes a perfect human social and aesthetic experience.

International Raccoon Appreciation Day


International Raccoon Appreciation day, celebrated on October 1st, may not yet be a universally recognized holiday but at the National Wildlife Federation we love raccoons, especially our mascot Ranger Rick!

International Raccoon Appreciation Day (IRAD) is a day meant to celebrate all animals, specifically raccoons, that, while being an important part of their ecosystem, are misunderstood and considered “pests” or “nuisance animals” to local peoples. This could include raccoons and coyotes in rural parts of the United States or elephants in farming communities of Africa.

IRAD is meant to spread knowledge and open the minds of people to the value of all animals. It’s goal is to prevent the destruction of habitat and diversity through education in an enjoyable manner.

IRAD was started in 2002 as Raccoon Appreciation Day by a young girl in California. It was meant at first to show that not everyone so despised raccoons, as evidenced by the plethora of raccoon items available and the many people who misguidedly tried to keep them as pets. As the word spread mainly to the girl’s relatives in various world countries, the name was changed to International Raccoon Appreciation Day the following year.

On October first of every year, tell people about raccoons or whatever the local “nuisance animal” is, and why we should respect them. Go on a nature walk with your children, donate time, supplies or funds to a local wildlife rescue, or clean up litter at a local wild area such as a regional park. Every little bit helps! And remember, you don’t have to wait until October first, you can do these things all year round!

The raccoon (Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon and colloquially as coon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the procyonid family, having a body length of 40 to 70 cm (16 to 28 in) and a body weight of 3.5 to 9 kg (8 to 20 lb). Its grayish coat mostly consists of dense underfur which insulates against cold weather. Two of the raccoon's most distinctive features are its extremely dexterous front paws and its facial mask, which are themes in the mythology of several Native American ethnic groups. Raccoons are noted for their intelligence, with studies showing that they are able to remember the solution to tasks for up to three years. The diet of the omnivorous raccoon, which is usually nocturnal, consists of about 40% invertebrates, 33% plant foods, and 27% vertebrates.

The original habitats of the raccoon are deciduous and mixed forests, but due to their adaptability they have extended their range to mountainous areas, coastal marshes, and urban areas, where some homeowners consider them to be pests. As a result of escapes and deliberate introductions in the mid-20th century, raccoons are now also distributed across mainland Europe, Caucasia, and Japan.

Though previously thought to be solitary, there is now evidence that raccoons engage in gender-specific social behavior. Related females often share a common area, while unrelated males live together in groups of up to four animals to maintain their positions against foreign males during the mating season, and other potential invaders. Home range sizes vary anywhere from 3 hectares (7 acres) for females in cities to 50 km2 (20 sq mi) for males in prairies. After a gestation period of about 65 days, two to five young, known as "kits", are born in spring. The kits are subsequently raised by their mother until dispersal in late fall. Although captive raccoons have been known to live over 20 years, their life expectancy in the wild is only 1.8 to 3.1 years. In many areas, hunting and vehicular injury are the two most common causes of death.

Model T Day


On October 1, 1908, the first production Model T Ford is completed at the company's Piquette Avenue plant in Detroit. Between 1908 and 1927, Ford would build some 15 million Model T cars. It was the longest production run of any automobile model in history until the Volkswagen Beetle surpassed it in 1972.

Before the Model T, cars were a luxury item: At the beginning of 1908, there were fewer than 200,000 on the road. Though the Model T was fairly expensive at first (the cheapest one initially cost $825, or about $18,000 in today's dollars), it was built for ordinary people to drive every day. It had a 22-horsepower, four-cylinder engine and was made of a new kind of heat-treated steel, pioneered by French race car makers, that made it lighter (it weighed just 1,200 pounds) and stronger than its predecessors had been. It could go as fast as 40 miles per hour and could run on gasoline or hemp-based fuel. (When oil prices dropped in the early 20th century, making gasoline more affordable, Ford phased out the hemp option.)  "No car under $2,000 offers more," ads crowed, "and no car over $2,000 offers more except the trimmings."

Ford kept prices low by sticking to a single product. By building just one model, for example, the company's engineers could develop a system of interchangeable parts that reduced waste, saved time and made it easy for unskilled workers to assemble the cars. By 1914, the moving assembly line made it possible to produce thousands of cars every week and by 1924, workers at the River Rouge Ford plant in Dearborn, Michigan could cast more than 10,000 Model T cylinder blocks in a day.

But by the 1920s, many Americans wanted more than just a sturdy, affordable car. They wanted style (for many years, the Model T famously came in just one color: black), speed and luxury too. As tastes changed, the era of the Model T came to an end and the last one rolled off the assembly line on May 26, 1927.

National BOOK It! Day


For 30 years, the Pizza Hut® BOOK IT!® Program has stood for one thing, and that's empowering a love of reading in young children. During the 2013-14 school year, the program will impact another 14 million kids in grades K-6 in more than 620,000 classrooms across the country.

On October 1, known as National BOOK IT! Day, BOOK IT! will debut a new, custom story  written just for BOOK IT! by Jeff Kinney. Splat tells the story of a boy and his friend who try to escape the watchful eye of safety patrol on the way home from school. Readers everywhere can enjoy at www.pizzahut.com/bookit.  This release kicks off the beginning of the "reading season" that will undoubtedly culminate month after month inside Pizza Hut restaurants nationwide with kids and families celebrating another successful month of reading over a beloved Pizza Hut Personal Pan Pizza®.

"The Pizza Hut BOOK IT! Program reaches students with a positive message about how rewarding reading can be and that is so important to us," said Shelley Morehead, BOOK IT! Program administrator. "Through our 29 years of advancing literacy, we're fortunate to have such tremendous support from schools and teachers around the country who want to make it great for kids by giving them the lifelong gift of reading."

BOOK IT!, which has customized reading materials for all ages, is entering year two of a partnership with award-winning author Jeff Kinney and his bestselling book series, "Diary of a Wimpy Kid." The eighth book, Hard Luck, is on sale November 5, 2013, and is one of the biggest books of the year. Elements of the Wimpy Kid books will be integrated into all BOOK IT! classroom materials, teacher printouts and a parent- and child-friendly web creative at www.pizzahut.com/bookit.  

"We have been so impressed with the BOOK IT! Program and the impact it has both on a national level and within each participating school," said Kinney. "As you can imagine, I developed a love for reading at a young age and a program like BOOK IT! does an incredible job of keeping reading fun and relevant."

Throughout the 2013-14 BOOK IT! program year, students, teachers and even principals will have opportunities to support literacy in their school and community. Some of these activities include:

National Young Readers Week – National Young Readers Week is an ongoing initiative to support literacy and BOOK IT! is challenging all principals to read all day, starting from the first bell and ending with the last. Some principals read in the hallway, some go to classrooms and some will even read from the roof!

Minute Tracker – The Minute Tracker is an interactive, online tool for teachers to use to promote reading in the classroom.  One lucky classroom winner who uses the Minute Tracker will receive a classroom visit from Jeff Kinney in Spring 2014.

The BOOK IT! reading incentive program, launched by Pizza Hut in 1985, provides the materials for teachers and librarians to set monthly goals and present students with a reading award certificate when goals are met. Students take the certificates to a Pizza Hut restaurant, where they are congratulated by a team member and given a free, one-topping Personal Pan Pizza. There is no purchase necessary and the pizza can be taken to go.

In 1985, Pizza Hut established the BOOK IT! National Reading Incentive Program to motivate children to read more and help them develop a lifelong love of reading. BOOK IT! is a six-month program for students in kindergarten through sixth grade. For more information, visit www.pizzahut.com/bookit or keep up with BOOK IT! via its social media outlets @BOOKITprogram and Facebook.com/BOOKIT1985.

More than 85 million Diary of a Wimpy Kid books are in print around the world. The books have been sold in more than 44 territories in 42 languages. Published by Amulet Books, an imprint of ABRAMS, Kinney's work has been widely praised for its ability to turn reluctant readers on to books. Book 8 in the series. Diary of a Wimpy Kid Hard Luck, will have the biggest print run of 2013 and will release on November 5, 2013. The series has been a fixture on the USA Today , Wall Street Journal, Publishers Weekly and New York Times bestseller lists. Jeff Kinney was named one of Time magazine's most influential people in the world. Three movies based on the book series have grossed more than $250 million internationally. The book series won Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards in 2010, 2011, and 2012 (and is nominated for one in 2013), and Jeff Kinney won a Children's Choice Book Award in 2012. Books in the series have won numerous awards voted on by students and teachers around the globe. The Wimpy Kid island (Wimpy Wonderland) on poptropica.com, a virtual world for kids, remains one of the most visited on the site.

Pizza Hut, a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc. (NYSE:  YUM), delivers more pizza, pasta and wings than any other restaurant in the world. In 2013, Pizza Hut was named the Harris Poll Equitrend® Pizza Brand of the Year and was the recipient of the Innovation and Leadership in Advertising Award from the American Advertising Federation, 10th District. The only pizza company to be named a top ten franchise in 2013 by Entrepreneur Magazine, Pizza Hut began 55 years ago in Wichita, Kansas, and today operates more than 10,000 restaurants in more than 90 countries. Pizza Hut also is the proprietor of the BOOK IT! ® Program, which is a long-standing children's literacy program used in more than 620,000 classrooms nationwide. To order online from Pizza Hut, visit PizzaHut.com.

National Black Dog Day


Did you know statistics show that black dogs are among the first to be euthanized at crowded animal shelters? Did you know that black dogs are among the last to be adopted?

Black animals altogether, are the least adoptable pets in shelters because of their color. All too often, black dogs are overlooked because of many stigmas such as; the color black is evil (the same stigma that cats have), black dogs do not show up as well in photographs as multi-colored or light colored dogs and black dogs look scary and intimidating because you cannot see their facial expressions as easily, etc. They are easily overlooked when people are searching for a new dog and the first to be euthanized in overcrowded conditions.

This special day was founded by Celebrity Pet & Family Lifestyle Expert, Author and Designer, Colleen Paige, who is also the founder of National Dog Day, National Cat Day, National Puppy Day and many more philanthropic holidays to increase the greater good. National Black Dog Day is devoted to creating public awareness about these beautiful, shiny fur babies that offer just as much unconditional love as any other dog and deserve just as much love back. Black dogs also show off colorful accessories much better than any lightly colored dog! Try buying your black dog a neon green or hot pink collar!

Please adopt a black dog and show the world how much light they have inside and out!

National Lace Day


October 1 is National Lace Day. For some people that means stitching historic lace patterns or creating new ones. Lace is an incredibly versatile material, used for commonly for decoration, pillow-making and items of clothing. National Lace Day aims to raise awareness of the art of lace making, and encourages you to give it a go!

Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open web-like pattern, made by machine or by hand.

Originally linen, silk, gold, or silver threads were used. Now lace is often made with cotton thread, although linen and silk threads are still available. Manufactured lace may be made of synthetic fiber. A few modern artists make lace with a fine copper or silver wire instead of thread. A totally different scale are the architectural lace fences by Dutch designers.

There are many types of lace, classified by how they are made. These include:

  • Needle lace, such as Venetian Gros Point, is made using a needle and thread. This is the most flexible of the lace-making arts. While some types can be made more quickly than the finest of bobbin laces, others are very time-consuming. Some purists regard needle lace as the height of lace-making. The finest antique needle laces were made from a very fine thread that is not manufactured today.
  • Cutwork, or whitework, is lace constructed by removing threads from a woven background, and the remaining threads wrapped or filled with embroidery.
  • Bobbin lace, as the name suggests, is made with bobbins and a pillow. The bobbins, turned from wood, bone, or plastic, hold threads which are woven together and held in place with pins stuck in the pattern on the pillow. The pillow contains straw, preferably oat straw or other materials such as sawdust, insulation styrofoam, or ethafoam. Also known as Bone-lace. Chantilly lace is a type of bobbin lace.
  • Tape lace makes the tape in the lace as it is worked, or uses a machine- or hand-made textile strip formed into a design, then joined and embellished with needle or bobbin lace.
  • Knotted lace includes macramé and tatting. Tatted lace is made with a shuttle or a tatting needle.
  • Crocheted lace includes Irish crochet, pineapple crochet, and filet crochet.
  • Knitted lace includes Shetland lace, such as the "wedding ring shawl", a lace shawl so fine that it can be pulled through a wedding ring.
  • Machine-made lace is any style of lace created or replicated using mechanical means.
  • Chemical lace: the stitching area is stitched with embroidery threads that form a continuous motif. Afterwards, the stitching areas are removed and only the embroidery remains. The stitching ground is made of a water-soluble or non-heat-resistant material.
  • The origin of lace is disputed by historians. An Italian claim is a will of 1493 by the Milanese Sforza family. A Flemish claim is lace on the alb of a worshiping priest in a painting about 1485 by Hans Memling. But since lace evolved from other techniques, it is impossible to say that it originated in any one place.

The late 1500s century marked the rapid development of lace, both needle lace and bobbin lace became dominant in both fashion as well as home décor. For enhancing the beauty of collars and cuffs, needle lace was embroidered with loops and picots.

Lace was used by clergy of the early Catholic Church as part of vestments in religious ceremonies but did not come into widespread use until the 16th century in the northwestern part of the European continent. The popularity of lace increased rapidly and the cottage industry of lace making spread throughout Europe. In North America in the 19th century, missionaries spread the knowledge of lace making to the Native American tribes. St. John Francis Regis helped many country girls stay away from the cities by establishing them in the lace making and embroidery trade, which is why he became the Patron Saint of lace making.

The English diarist Samuel Pepys often wrote about the lace used for his, his wife's, and his acquaintances' clothing, and on May 10, 1669, noted that he intended to remove the gold lace from the sleeves of his coat "as it is fit [he] should", possibly in order to avoid charges of ostentatious living.

To date inspiring journals, guilds and foundations show that old techniques with a new twist can challenge young people to create works that can definitely classify as art.

National Poetry Day


National Poetry Day is a British campaign to promote poetry, including public performances. National Poetry Day was founded in 1994 by William Sieghart. It takes place annually in the UK and Ireland on the first or second Thursday of October. Since its inception, it has engaged millions of people across the country with live events, classroom activities and broadcasts. National Poetry Day is coordinated by the charity Forward Arts Foundation, whose mission is to celebrate excellence in poetry and increase its audience. Its other projects include the Forward Prizes for Poetry. The day is run in collaboration with partners including Arts Council Northern Ireland, Literature Wales, Poet in the City, Southbank Centre, The Poetry Book Society, The Poetry Society, The Scottish Poetry Library and Birmingham Literature Festival.

National Poetry Day was founded in 1994 by William Sieghart who said, "There are millions of talented poets out there and it’s about time they got some recognition for their work. They shouldn’t be embarrassed about reading their work out aloud. I want people to read poetry on the bus on their way to work, in the street, in school and in the pub." National Poetry Day is celebrated around the United Kingdom. In 1994 the Radio Times wrote “National Poetry Day has been created to prove that poetry has a place in everyone’s life. From children chanting to advertising jingles and pop songs, it is used to entertain and communicate across the nation.” The Belfast Newsletter reported, "National Poetry Day swept Ulster yesterday, transforming ordinary citizens into part-time bards or budding Heaneys or Wordsworths." The Daily Telegraph reported that in London at Waterloo station, "The announcement boards were given over to poems about trains by T S Eliot and Auden." “The Times reported Chris Meade, director of the Poetry Society saying, "Readers are finding a place for poetry in their lives again. You can read one between stations on the Northern Line. It fits well into the modern experience.” The East Anglian Daily Times reported, "National Poetry Day was the cue for a stanza bonanza, with railway stations, classrooms, theatres and supermarkets bursting with verse and echoing to epics".

Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such asAristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form andrhyme, and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language.

Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration,onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements ofpoetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metaphor, simile and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm.

Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe, Mickiewicz and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter; there are, however, traditions, such as Biblical poetry, that use other means to create rhythm and euphony. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages.

Poetry as an art form may predate literacy. Epic poetry, from the Indian Vedas (1700–1200 BC) and Zoroaster's Gathas to the Odyssey (800–675 BC), appears to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies. Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the ancient compilation Shijing, were initially lyrics, preceding later entries intended to be read.

The oldest surviving epic poem is the Epic of Gilgamesh, from the 3rd millennium BC in Sumer (in Mesopotamia, now Iraq), which was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, papyrus. The oldest love poem is only slightly younger sitting among Sumerian documents such as a court verdict from 2030 B.C. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey, the Old Iranian books the Gathic Avesta and Yasna, the Roman national epic, Virgil's Aeneid, and the Indian epics Ramayana andMahabharata.

The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient poetic traditions; such as, contextually, Classical Chinese poetry in the case of the Shijing (Classic of Poetry), which records the development of poetic canons with ritual and aesthetic importance. More recently, thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in context spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, and rap.

National Walk Your Dog Day


Time to go for a walk – doggie style! Happy National Walk Your Dog Day! In light of this day created by Celebrity Pet Lifestyle Expert and Animal Advocate, Colleen Paige we would like to share with you the importance of walking your dog. Many pet parents fail to walk their dog as often as they should and don’t realize the increasing problems that follow.

"With more and more people becoming sedentary and gaining weight due to a lack of exercise, say's Paige, dogs don't get the necessary outlet they need to stay physically and mentally healthy. I feel that part of the overpopulation of dogs in this country is hugely associated with our growing waistlines. Generally, the less a person exercises, the less a dog exercises. Having trained thousands of dogs in the last twenty years, it's my estimation that at least 75% of dogs in shelters are there due to a lack of exercise, which has thus resulted in serious behavior issues such as aggression, destruction and separation anxiety issues. Often, dogs run away from home because they're kept sequestered all day long in a crate or a small yard, says Paige, which only exacerbates a dog's destructive, aggressive or anxious tendencies. This, coupled with too much fatty food, leads to obesity, as well as medical issues like pancreatitis, diabetes, heart disease and the number one killer of dogs – cancer. October is a beautiful time of year everywhere to get outside. Walking your dog on a daily basis not only increases the endorphins in both human and canine brains {happy chemicals} but it improves the bond between the two”.

Paige says she initially founded National Walk Your Day for October 1st, as a way to highlight these issues and encourage people to get out with their dog and start getting healthy, but later felt was not enough to stimulate a continued walking program, so she then founded National Walk Your Dog Week to be celebrated the entire first week of October. She believes that when people witness the changes in their beloved dogs by giving them a week of exercise they normally don't get, not only will they see a massive difference in their dog’s behavior but the dog's person will feel so good they won't want to stop. This not only helps to save the life of the dog by promoting proper health and quelling behavior issues that might otherwise land him in the shelter facing euthanasia - but it will also help to improve the health of the human companion and possibly save their life down the road as well.

Walking your dog is much more than just a reason to get some fresh air. By simply walking your dog every day for 30-45 minutes you are preventing canine behavior issues, obesity and more! We have compiled a list of 10 convincing reasons why you should go grab your dog’s leash and take your best friend out for a stroll!
  1. Taking your dog for a walk will calm him or her down. Dogs build up a certain amount of energy in a day that they’re just dying to let out. If your dog’s energy isn’t released during a walk then it’s extremely likely for them to act out through bad behavior. Having a tired dog will cause him or her to be calm and relaxed! Good for you, good for your dog, and good for your home!
  2. Social interaction. Socialization is an important part to anyone’s life – especially your dog! While walking around you may bump into a friend or your dog’s friend! Building your dog’s social skills will make for peaceful interactions in the near future.
  3. Aids in training your dog. Having your dog use his or her energy during a walk will allow for a calmer mind. This is a time where your dog is most likely to focus on you and your training. Remember you should be the one walking your dog, not the other way around!
  4. The dog won’t walk himself! Dogs will take responsibility for their own health. So if they have to go to the bathroom and you refuse to take them for a walk, they will most likely go potty in your home. By taking your dog for walks constantly, he or she will learn that walks are the time to go to the bathroom.
  5. Provides mental and physical stimulation. During a walk your dog will uncover new smells, sounds and sights. Exploring new surroundings happens to be an instinctual activity for dogs.
  6. Exposure to the world beyond your home. Dogs who are kept cooped up inside a house all day are not going to be familiar with things around the neighborhood. Many dogs will bark in fear or become skittish if they’re around a strange thing. By getting them familiar with other surroundings and objects, they will become more comfortable with the world they live in.
  7. Prevents Obesity! Unlike humans, dogs don’t realize that they are gaining weight. Since they cannot go to the gym or attend yoga classes alone, it’s your goal to get them back in shape! Walks will allow your dog to walk off the pounds and aid in lengthening the life of your dog!
  8. Bonding time! It’s very important to have a strong bond with your dog. After all, a dog is a man’s best friend. By simply walking your dog you are providing them with the attention and interaction they long for. Also walking your dog with other dogs will help them develop relationships.
  9. Fulfill your dog’s natural instincts. Walking is a dog’s natural instinct! Walking provides a sense of direction and accomplishment. Walks can help prevent your dog’s desire of running away!
  10. A reason to get out! The best part of walking your dog is that you have your very own walking buddy! You get to enjoy the fresh air and world around you with your best friend.
As you can see, walking your dog is an essential factor to maintain a happy and healthy lifestyle for your dog! Your dog will behave better and get into the best shape of their life! Who knew walking had SO many benefits! Not to mention you can get yourself in shape too!

Remember that a dog that is not walked often can develop some bad habits! These include becoming anxious, destructive and even bored. A bored dog will act out! Walk your dog to prevent any behavioral issues and prevent obesity! It’s ALWAYS a beautiful day for a stroll in the park. What’s a better way to celebrate National Walk Your Dog Day than to take your best friend for a relaxing walk? Go grab that leash and head out the door!

World Vegetarian Day


Today is World Vegetarian Day! Organized by the North American Vegetarian Society (NAVS), World Vegetarian Day promotes awareness about the proven benefits of vegetarianism. Each year about one million people become vegetarians in the United States.

Far from being a relatively new phenomenon, vegetarianism has enjoyed a long and diverse history and has been preserved in most cultures since the beginnings of time.

In antiquity, vegetarianism found favour with some of the great figures of the classical world, most notably Pythagoras (580 BCE). Well known for his contributions to mathematics, Pythagoras was an independent thinker, the first to admit women to his intellectual circle on equal terms and to argue that the world was a sphere. His teaching that all animals should be treated as kindred included the abstinence from meat. Pythagoras's ideas mirrored, in part, the traditions of much earlier civilizations including the Babylonians and ancient Egyptians. A vegetarian ideology was practiced among religious groups in Egypt around 3,200 BCE, with abstinence from flesh and the wearing of animal derived clothing  based upon karmic beliefs in reincarnation.

In the Greek tradition of Pythagoras, it was not only the avoidance of animal cruelty that established vegetarianism as a way of life, he also saw the health advantages a meat-free diet. Pythagoras viewed vegetarianism as a key factor in peaceful human co-existence, putting forward the view that slaughtering animals brutalized the human soul. Other notable Ancient Greek thinkers that came after Pythagoras favored a vegetarian diet. These included Theophrastus, pupil of Aristotle and successor to him as head of the Lyceum at Athens. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle all debated the status of animals though Aristotle's conclusion that the animal kingdom exists for human use (and in his view, as equal to slaves) prefigured the the view of the Romans and the christian church that was to become the dominant view in the west.

Pythagorean ideals found very limited sympathy within the brutality of Ancient Rome, where many wild animals were murdered at the hands of gladiators in the name of sport and spectacle. Pythagoreans were despised as subversives, with many keeping their vegetarianism to themselves for fear of persecution. However, the term 'Pythagorean' was to become synonymous with 'vegetarian' and vegetarianism was to spread throughout the Roman Empire from the 3rd to 6th centuries among those influenced by Neo-Platonist philosophy. Such authors included Plutarch (c.CE46) whose 16 volume work Moralia includes the 'Essay on Flesh Eating' , Porphyry (c.CE232) who wrote 'On Abstinence From Animal Food' and Apollonius who was a well travelled healer and strict vegetarian who spoke out against deliberately imposed grain restrictions.

People choose to become vegetarians for many different reasons. Common motivations are ethical concerns, health concerns, and environmental concerns. Not eating meat saves animals from